Xanthan gum is a natural ingredient used as a thickening agent to stabilize formulas and to prevent them from separating. It is a polysaccharide (class of carbohydrate), derived from Xanthomonas campestris (a plant bacteria).
Zinc oxide/OR Zinc PCA
Zinc Oxide is a naturally occurring mineral, known for its potent antioxidant and antibacterial properties. It is soothing, non-irritating, non-allergenic, non-comedogenic, and delivers broad-spectrum UVA and UVB protection. It is gentle enough for everyday use, especially for individuals with sensitive skin. Zinc is also proven to combat the signs of aging. Mahoney et al. evaluated the effects of a bi-metal, 0.1% copper-zinc malonate, containing cream on 21 female patients with photoaged facial skin. After 8 weeks of therapy, significant skin regeneration and reduction in wrinkles were apparent. The researchers concluded that the combined photoprotective and elastic regenerative properties of zinc could be used for the development of effective antiaging therapies
Radava R. Korać and Kapil M. Khambholja. APotential of herbs in skin protection from ultraviolet radiation. Pharmacogn Rev. 2011 Jul-Dec; 5(10): 164–173. Also available: http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3263051/
Mrinal Gupta, Vikram K. Mahajan, Karaninder S. Mehta, and Pushpinder S. Chauhan. Zinc Therapy in Dermatology: A Review, Dermatology Research and Practice , Volume 2014 (2014), Article ID 709152, 11 pages. Also available: http://dx.doi.org/10.1155/2014/709152 and http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4120804/
Saul R Powell. The Antioxidant Properties of Zinc, Journal of Nutrition (Impact Factor: 3.88). 06/2000; 130(5S Suppl):1447S-54S
Mahoney MG, Brennan D, Starcher B, Faryniarz J, Ramirez J, Parr L, and Uitto J.; Extracellular matrix in cutaneous ageing: the effects of 0.1% copper-zinc malonate-containing cream on elastin biosynthesis. Exp Dermatol. 2009 Mar;18(3):205-11. Also available: http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/19400831