Niacinamide PC (Vitamin B3)
Niacinamide is a multitasking ingredient, water-soluble, and structurally stable in the presence of heat and light. Clinical studies have shown that topical use of Niacinamide stabilizes epidermal barrier function, or a reduction in transepidermal water loss and an improvement in the moisture retention of skin. It increases protein synthesis (such as keratin), helps stimulate ceramide synthesis, treats uneven skin tone, brightens, and mitigates post-inflammatory hyperpigmentation, among other benefits for skin. In aging skin, topical application of Niacinamide improves the surface structure, smoothes out wrinkles and prevents photocarcinogenesis. It has also demonstrated anti-inflammatory effects in acne, rosacea and certain types of irritation. Niacinamide is highly regarded suitable for use as an ingredient in cosmetic products due to these many benefits.
Sivapirabu G, Yiasemides E, Halliday GM, Park J, Damian DL.; Topical nicotinamide modulates cellular energy metabolism and provides broad-spectrum protection against ultraviolet radiation-induced immunosuppression in humans, British Journal of Dermatology, December 2009, pages 1,357–1,364.
Gehring W.; Nicotinic acid/niacinamide and the skin. J Cosmet Dermatol. 2004 Apr;3(2):88-93.
Also available: http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/17147561
Bissett DL, Oblong JE, Berge CA.; Niacinamide: A B vitamin that improves aging facial skin appearance. Dermatol Surg. 2005 Jul;31(7 Pt 2):860-5; discussion 865.
Hakozaki T, Minwalla L, Zhuang J, Chhoa M, Matsubara A, Miyamoto K, Greatens A, Hillebrand GG, Bissett DL, Boissy RE.; The effect of niacinamide on reducing cutaneous pigmentation and suppression of melanosome transfer. Br J Dermatol. 2002 Jul;147(1):20-31.
Hakozaki T, Takiwaki H, Miyamoto K, Sato Y, Arase S.; Ultrasound enhanced skin-lightening effect of vitamin C and niacinamide. Skin Res Technol. 2006 May;12(2):105-13.
Lee DH, Oh IY, Koo KT, Suk JM, Jung SW, Park JO, Kim BJ, Choi YM.; Reduction in facial hyperpigmentation after treatment with a combination of topical niacinamide and tranexamic acid: a randomized, double-blind, vehicle-controlled trial. Skin Res Technol. 2014 May;20(2):208-12.