Apple Fruit Extract
Keratinocytes produce keratin, which is composed of fibrous proteins responsible for strengthening skin membranes. Decrease in keratinocytes leads to a weakening of skin cells, resulting in a sagging, wrinkling effect. Scientists tested moisturizing effects of dried extracts of apple fruit, called Botanimoist® AMS (apple moisturizing saccharide) in a placebo-controlled human study and found that a single topical application of a gel containing 5% of the extract resulted in 88% increase in skin hydration—after just 30 minutes. Even after 6 hours, skin hydration of participants in the study remained 31% higher than the hydration level of non-participants.
Cosmetic Ingredient Review Expert Panel. (2015). Safety Assessment of Pyrus malus (Apple)-derived Ingredients as Used in Cosmetics. Retrieved January 24, 2018, from http://www.cir-safety.org/sites/default/files/pyrusm032015rep.pdf
Cosmetics & Toiletries. (2008.). Retrieved January 24, 2018, from http://www.cosmeticsandtoiletries.com/formulating/function/active/26883709.html?page=1